Alcohol & Health

Scientific studies have reported an association between alcohol consumption and various health outcomes. According to the CDC, “over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to the development of chronic diseases and other serious problems . . . By not drinking too much, you can reduce the risk of these short- and long-term health risks.”1

While there are many studies that have found an association with health benefits and alcohol consumption, no one should drink alcohol to obtain potential health benefits. Adults who choose to consume alcohol should follow the recommendations of the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and discuss their consumption with their health care providers.

Whether you consume beer, wine, or spirits, “it is the amount of alcohol consumed that affects a person most, not the type.”2

More information and tools to help calculate how much alcohol you are consuming can be found at

DrinkFacts includes information on alcohol and health for topics with large bodies of scientific literature that reflect strong research methodologies and consistent research findings. The potential relationship between alcohol and health has been studied extensively over the course of many decades, and this is by no means and exhaustive list of topics. Research on these and all other topics can be explored further on, a government database of scientific research that contains more than one million results on the topic of “alcohol.”

All-Cause Mortality

What is “All-cause mortality”? All-cause mortality represents the death rate in a population from any and all causes. Thousands of research studies have tried to examine the impact that a behavior...

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Cancer is a complex disease, and numerous factors contribute to an individual’s risk. The American Cancer Society (“ACS”) explains “risk factors” as follows:...

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Cardiovascular Disease & Stroke

Studies have reported that alcohol consumption is related to both protective and harmful effects on cardiovascular health, depending on the level of consumption and other factors. According to NIH, ...

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Diabetes / Metabolic Disorders

Studies have reported that alcohol can have an impact on blood sugar, which is an important factor for potentially developing diabetes and for managing diabetes....

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Immune System & Inflammatory Conditions

Researchers have reported that excessive alcohol consumption may weaken your immune system, but that moderate consumption may also reduce inflammation and the risk of developing arthritis....

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Kidney Disease

Research has reported that excessive alcohol consumption may damage kidney function and can also worsen kidney disease. Other research has also found that alcohol consumption has been associated with...

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Liver Disease

It is well known that excessive alcohol consumption can lead to liver damage, including liver failure or cancer. The Surgeon General’s Report states that ...

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Pregnancy & Breastfeeding

It is common knowledge that alcohol consumption has been associated with risks to pregnancies. Since 1989, the United States has required a warning statement to be printed on all alcohol beverages...

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  1. Drinking too much alcohol can harm your health. Learn the facts | CDC
  2. Alcohol Questions and Answers | CDC